Cantor Gershon Sirota
He was born in 1873 or 1874, that's not sure, in Haisyn in the Ukraine (Podolia region).
His father was a well
known Cantor in a rural Synagogue. His first vocal lessons were given by his father. In 1891, Gershon Sirota moved to Odessa
and started to sing at the Odessa Synagogue.
His strong voice attracted the attention of the director of the Odessa conservatory,
Baron Kolbuss, and he received vocal training at the conservatory. In 1892, Gershon Sirota
made his debut at the Odessa Opera. He sang in Die Schöpfung by Haydn together with the well known bass L.Sibiriakov.
took vocal lessons at the Viennese conservatory. In Vienna, Sirota became a protégé of Baron Anselm Rothschild, and was torn
between an operatic and a cantorial career. The
result was not his own decision: his father died, and he had to return to Odessa before his Vienna studies were finished; back
in his orthodox Jewish social environment, an operatic career was now out of reach, though he left Odessa soon again to take
the post at the Vilnius synagogue from 1896 until 1908. From 1905, Gershon Sirota simultaneously sang at the Warsaw Synagogue. In 1908, Gershon Sirota
sang in St.-Petersburg, where his singing was highly appreciated by the
Tsar Nikolai II. In St. Petersburg, he didn't only sing for the Tsar, but above all, for the Tsar's mother,
Maria Fyodorovna - more precisely, he was asked to sing a benefit concert for a charity foundation of hers, and she presented
him with a golden watch with a personal inscription, which was an almost incredible honour for a Jewish cantor, given the
virulent Russian antisemitism. It created such a sensation that the Jewish communities in the Russian Empire had serious
hopes that, following Sirota's appreciation, their general position might improve somehow (vain hopes, of course). In 1912,
Gershon Sirota made his New York debut at Carnegie-Hall. He was compared Tamagno and Caruso, and was nicknamed the Jewish Caruso. During World
War one, Gershon Sirota was Ober-Cantor at the Warsaw Synagogue. His
Warsaw congregation (at the Tlomatzka synagogue) was not as enthusiastic about his (three) pre-war US concert tours as
his American audience, who were absolutely frenetic, including Enrico Caruso, who is said to have been a great admirer
of Sirota's art. His Warsaw choirmaster, Leo Lwow, served as his manager and arranged those tours for him.
Sirota was also
the first cantor who became a star of the recording industry, his records having spread his fame in the USA already before
he arrived there in person. After WWI, he resumed his concerts in the US, and went on extended tours at Montreal, and Buenos
Aires. In 1921, Gershon Sirota made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera in a concert. The conflict with the Tlomatzka
officials about his absences went on, which led eventually to his dismissal in 1924; but the affection of the Warsaw
congregation forced the synagogue directors to hire Sirota back in 1926. However, he wasn't greeted
with the usual enthusiasm - in America, he had changed his style towards "more operatic", and after a further leave for New
York in 1927, he was definitely dismissed from the Tlomatzka as soon as he came back home (Moshe Koussevitsky being his
successor). For the rest of his career, he continued travelling both North and South America and Palestine, though from
1930 till 1935, he had at the same time a new fix engagement in Warsaw, not at the Tlomatzka but at a lesser synagogue
(the Nozsik). (Though it is not true that he had an engagement in Tel Aviv. His performance at the Allenby Avenue Great
Synagogue there in 1928 was just as a guest, to inaugurate the new synagogue.) His last US appearance took place in Milwaukee
in 1938. He then returned to Warsaw partly because his vocal power started dwindling, but primarily because his wife fell
seriously ill, and that's also the reason why he didn't immediately leave when the Nazis overran Poland.
When he finally tried to, it was too late, and though he tried to get out of the country with the help of his American
friends and agents, all attempts failed. He and his whole family were killed by the Nazis during the uprising of the
Warsaw Ghetto in April 1943.
In RA Format
In RA Format
In RA Format
Recordings notes: What Sirota achieved in this kind of music is certainly among the very greatest tenor singing ever.
The composers of the two pieces are unknown. The problem with cantorial music is that composers are
not equally valued as in classical music. Much of the material is traditional, but just literally material,
almost never whole prayers or songs - just parts of them, single phrases, while the connection between those
"crucial phrases" is existing in several or even many different versions by different composers -
whose names are normally not quoted. Often, it's the cantor himself who is also a composer and singing his
own version; but not every cantor was also composing (Koussevitsky and Sirota, as far as I know, were not).
And of course, particularly the famous composers such as Rosenblatt sometimes wrote entirely new pieces to
the old texts, without using the traditional musical material. The problem is worsened by the obvious fact
that the texts are always the same - the prayers of Jewish liturgy; and worsened further by the highly
different transliterations of Hebrew. So a song's title, even if you happen to identify it (
cf. Ovinu malkenu, Avinu malkenu, Oivinu molkeinu... always the same prayer),
says nothing at all about the composition; the important prayers have been set to different music a
dozen of times and more. The most important source as to the composers of single recordings is the
Freedman catalogue, available online at this Link.
In RA Format
I wish to thank Robert Schlesinger for the recordings (Trovatore, Mimkoimo hu jifen, Ki-khol peh), recording notes and the update to the biographical notes.
I wish to thank Vladimir Efimenko for the picture, biographical notes and recording (huguenots).